The Myth of Trafficking

Originally published on Marijkes Praktijken. Author Marijke Vonk. Translated by Maartje Swart.

It’s a classic heroic tale: bad guys abduct an innocent little girl, hero barges into their lair and saves the damsel in distress. It’s the exact story that we get told about human trafficking in the sex industry. Human traffickers steal a woman away and force her to work until the heroes storm the brothel and save her. But what if the ‘damsel’ wasn’t actually in distress? What if there are no bad guys to be found? What if the heroes turn out to be the bad guys?

The rescue industry is big business. The USAID Counter Trafficking in Persons project pulled in a good 7.3 million US dollars. The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, one of the largest international organisations against prostitution, offers financing and jobs to countless projects and persons. The Dutch organisation Free a Girl raised more than a hundred thousand euro through their Lock me Up campaign, for example for the Alliance Anti Trafic, which orchestrates rescue missions in which prostitutes are taken from their workplaces and kept locked in government buildings. In itself a worthy goal, of course, trying to rescue women from sexual exploitation. But there are problems.

“It’s as if prostitutes don’t want to be saved,” said a surprised manager of a Rescue Foundation shelter in India. The rescuers had once again made a raid on a brothel, after which the women had been forced into a shelter they weren’t allowed to leave. Again and again women escaped, continually protested their imprisonment in the shelters, and returned to their old workplaces as soon as they were able to make a run for it. It was as if the women were working as prostitutes of their own accord, didn’t view themselves as victims, thought of the rescue missions as threats to their human rights and livelihoods and for the most part felt victimized by the rescue industry.

We have now reached a point in history where there are more women in the Thai sex industry who are being abused by anti-trafficking practices than there are women being exploited by traffickers.
– Thailand, Empower Report

In Thailand sex workers refusing to admit after capture that they were human trafficking victims can be detained for months so they can be used as witnesses in other human trafficking cases. They don’t have a right to legal counsel, aren’t allowed to contact their families or other organisations and aren’t allowed to leave. The medical care in such ‘shelters’ (prostitute prisons) is inadequate. There’s no independent institution where the prostitutes can complain, there’s no trial, the rescue industry gets a free pass.

In India, too, women try desperately to stay out of the rescue industry’s clutches. After women had fled the ‘shelters’ (prisons) in Mumbai once again, the High Council ordered an investigation. “The shelters are a living hell” was the conclusion. Women suspected of prostitution, regardless of whether they are guilty (or well, victimized) can be kept prisoner for years, even if they want to leave. They have no right to legal counsel because they are ‘victims’ and there’s no trial. They aren’t allowed to communicate with the world outside the shelter, although often their families are often informed they are sex workers, so that women don’t dare to go home and face this disgrace. They are fed concoctions with insects, worms and gravel in them. Sexual assault by staff members is an everyday occurence, just like forced vaginal exams and abuse. Sanitary amenities are inadequate, women urinate and defecate on the floors, there is almost no medical care. They want out. Women are depressed, fearful and even suicidal. More and more money is spent on guarding these shelters: not for the safety of the women, but to make sure they stay inside and contain the umpteenth try to break out.

Because what you need to understand is, organisations that are part of the rescue industry earn good money for rescuing and rehabilitating enough women in their shelters. The more court cases (if there are any perpetrators they are rarely convicted), the more ‘witnesses’ they ‘protect’ and the more sex workers they ‘offer a chance at a better future’ by having them make products that are sold in the Western world for big bucks (“made by disadvantaged women who were saved from the sex industry!”) the more money the projects rake in. More women means more cash.

In South Korea the bullying by the police has gotten so severe that prostitutes rather killed themselves than be ‘saved’. The United States pressured the government into making a stand against  prostitution (‘human trafficking’). Despite protests from the sex workers themselves the police kept arresting johns and pestering the prostitutes. Women used to earn about  nine thousand dollar each month, but this shrunk to a good three thousand ever since the police kept invading the brothels. The US and the South Korean government have reached their goal: women are being forced out of prostitution against their will. For 920 USD per month they are allowed to live in a shelter and work for the government, but as usual few prostitutes are happy to perform forced labor while impris… I mean, to be rescued.

RATSW: If a woman agrees to go to work in a brothel but ends up sent to a factory and forced to sew, is that trafficking? Would you rescue her?
Police: No that is not trafficking. We wouldn’t rescue her. That is called an opportunity.
Empower Report

Size of the human trafficking industry
The rescue industry claims there are millions of people all over the world, particularly women and children, who are being traded like chattel across borders to work as slaves in the sex industry. However, real proof for large-scale human trafficking operations is never found. The rescue industry claims this is because it’s a hidden and shadowy world which makes it hard to find hard data, but even big ‘rescue operations’ don’t succeed in proving the existence of trafficking. Take for instance the British project ‘Pantameter 2’, involving the police forces of the entire United Kingdom (as well as that of the Republic of Ireland and the UK Human Trafficking Centre), in which raids were performed in hundreds (hundreds!) of brothels and massage parlors. Results? No arrests. Not a single arrest was made for trafficking or forced prostitution. Zero. Nada. Dissatisfaction with this result led to the foundation of the Acumen project, explicitly designed to provide proof of human trafficking. The results were disappointing: none of the women had been kidnapped, held against her will or sold. To be considered ‘vulnerable’ in this investigation they had to fulfill one of the criteria, of which working in a brothel was one, which labeled the whole group as ‘vulnerable’. Other criteria were having an economically disadvantaged position (not speaking English, not having had an education), having a disadvantaged social position (being an illegal immigrant for example), being wrongly informed (it was sufficient if you were working in a different city than had been agreed on) or having been abused/having been forced (was found only rarely). Four of these criteria were enough to be considered a ‘victim of human trafficking’ in this report, regardless of whether you actually were a victim of human trafficking. 11% of the women included in the investigation complied to these criteria. Next, this percentage was raised considerably based on preconceptions (“this has to be too low, in reality there must be more women from vulnerable countries”) and the results were presented to the world: thousands of victims of human trafficking in the UK! They hadn’t found even one…

CoMensha is a Dutch foundation that fights human trafficking and puts out reports about the scale of human trafficking in the Netherlands. Their numbers are used by the Justice Ministry’s WODC and by the police. In their annual reports, CoMensha mentions the amount of reports they have received of possible victims of human trafficking, but for convenience’s sake, they abbreviate this structurally to victims of human trafficking. And to be clear: CoMensha does not check or investigate these reports, they are reports of suspicions.

The imprecise (and misleading) language use of CoMensha is copied without scruples by all sorts of official institutes, and this turns the reports of possible victims into actual victims. When the government ordered the Intraval agency to investigate prostitution, their report mentioned “400 victims of human trafficking” instead of the actual 400 reports of possible victims. The real problems in the sex industry are not talked about. Prostitutes in Utrecht are hindered in their work and are denied a place of business ‘for their own good’ and ‘because of suspicions of human trafficking’.  Again, the myth of human trafficking is used to put prostitutes in a more dangerous spot, to force the sex industry underground and to take away the rights of sex workers.

In the year 2000, The National Human Trafficking Reporter asked 155 help and special interest organisations how many reports they had had of possible victims of human trafficking, and simply added the numbers these organisations gave them (!) with no correction to account for doubles, then  systematically talked about ‘victims’ in the report instead of ‘possible victims’, causing news papers and other media to wrongly state that in the year 2000, there had been 608 victims of human trafficking.

In Cambodia alone there are hundreds of organisations ‘rescuing and rehabilitating’ sex workers’ and it’s suspected there are more activists than victims of trafficking. An audit by the USAID Counter Trafficking in Persons project reported that in 2009, only 12 people had been charged  for human trafficking.

The Asia-Pacific Network of Sex Workers (APNSW) reports how the rescue industry is almost pornographic in their way of using  lurid stories about sexual humiliation in order to rake in more funds, even while they have trouble finding any actual victims.is how the organisations explain this failure.

The police is often the perpetrator of violence against sex workers. In countries where prostitution is prohibited, it turns out the police is the number 1 agressor when it comes to violence against sex workers. They have the power to arrest and publicly humilate these women and this power is abused at a large scale. In Cambodia, 70% of the prostitutes who work in a brothel reports having been abused by the police and almost 60% has been raped by the police. The awful thing is, they are hardly able to report this sort of crime for fear they themselves will be arrested or abused further.

Anti-trafficking organisations have put themselves in the idiotic position where they have to use violence and human rights violations against the women and girls they say they are rescuing, so they can prove there has been a crime, in spite of the denial and the uncooperative attitudes of the alleged victims.

Sex work as a profession.
Of course, sex work isn’t always a completely free choice, often women find themselves needing to work in the sex industry because they lack other options. Research by Mai (2009) for example showed that a lot of immigrants in the UK work in the sex industry because that way they can eke out a respectable living for themselves and their families. A lot of immigrants choose sex work to avoid the abuse in other sectors, where long hours and little pay are not uncommon. Many of the sex workers in Cambodia are former seamstresses and clothing factory workers, who prefer the circumstances in the sex industry above those in other sectors.

Almost 95% of women in CSOM research reported the money they earned as the primary motivation to work as a sex worker. About 3.9% of women reported having ever been forced to work. This percentage, in this research and comparable ones, is similar to the percentage of women not in the sex industry who feel forced or abused. Furthermore, 97% (!) of women working as escorts report an increase in self confidence since they started working as a prostitute whereas only 8% of streetwalkers reports this. Another research (Decker, 1979: 166, 174) showed that 75% of escorts feel their lives improved since they started working as a sex worker, 25% says it didn’t change anything, and 0% felt that their lives had gotten worse. Australian research showed that half the protitutes considered their work as one of the major positive aspects to their lives, and 70% said they would choose prostitution again if they had to do their lives over (Woodward et al., 2004: 39).

The human trafficking myth allows governments to enforce restrictive migration laws, claiming it is to stop human trafficking but in reality mainly to stop immigration. In 2008, Cambodia passed the  Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Law, a law financed and supported by UNICEF. This law makes it impossible for sex workers to work safely, makes almost any social or financial transaction surrounding sex work a criminal act, and has forced sex workers out on the streets. The consequences are horrendous: sex workers are being raped, abused and arrested by the police, the rescue industry keeps women locked up against their will and women have been known to die in custody.

When sex workers are considered either criminals who need to be punished, OR victims in need of rescue, the rescue industry takes away any humane option from sex workers. Take for example Project ROSE in the US, in which prostitutes have to admit that they are victims, are lectured on the evils of ‘selling one’s body’ and have to promise to give up on sex work forever or they will be thrown in prison. You’re either a filthy whore or a powerless victim, nothing else.

‘Rescue missions’ in the sex industry and laws against ‘human trafficking’ in practice make sex workers’ positions more vulnerable and dangerous. Restrictive migration laws  to fight human trafficking and laws aimed against the clients of sex workers make a protitute’s job more complicated or even impossible, forcing sex workers to take more risks to fly under the radar. For many migrant sex workers the rescue industry and their ‘rescue missions’ are a greather threat to their safety and livelihood than john or ‘pimps’.

Large organisations for the rights of sex workers, like Empower in Thailand (50 thousand sex workers) are calling out for help against anti-trafficking organisations who are slandering them, insulting them, setting the police on them, keep them imprisoned for years, forcing medical exams on them, having them follow mandatory programs and forbidding them from crossing the border.

Stop human trafficking
To stop human trafficking, first the rescue industry has to be stopped. Reducing prostitutes to powerless victims and then raiding their homes or workplaces, keeping them in shelters they cannot leave and where they are forced to work for minimal pay because otherwise they are faced with arrest or worse is HUMAN TRAFFICKING.

Sex work needs to be acknowledged as a legitimate profession, so that sex workers can be protected against abuse and violence from police and institutions. In New Zealand the laws were changed in 2003, making sex work legal. Sex workers reported feeling no apprehension about going to the police or to court to make complaints about bad circumstances. A good 60% of sex workers indicated that under the new laws, they were better able to refuse work. The research committee’s conclusion was clear: legalizing sex work improves the rights and safety of sex workers.

Only when sex workers have equal rights as people in other professions we can begin to truly combat human trafficking. When sex workers can rent a space, have an accountant, can cooperate and have rights, then we can fight injustice.  Right now, prostitutes in England sharing an apartment for work can both be arrested and convicted for ‘being a pimp’ and ‘keeping a brothel’, allegedly making the other their victim! In India, adult live-in children of sex workers are arrested for human trafficking (because they benefit financially from their parent’s income). In the US, prostitutes travelling or visiting a client together are arrested, again because they ‘victimize’ each other. If, as a sex worker, you can file a report on a bad situation without fear of being kidnapped and held by the rescue industry or arrested by the police, you can arrange so much help from within the sex industry itself. The world is in no way improved when we punish sex workers.

The real causes of human trafficking need to be addressed. Problems surrounding poverty, gender inequality, migration problems, discrimination, cultural problems and sex negativism. Human rights. But that’s not as exciting a story as 13-year old girls in a six foot square closet, so human trafficking is still being financed by us. The saviors. The good guys. It’s enough to make you cry. 🙁

In New Zealand, by the way, there hasn’t been an incident involving human trafficking since 2003.

23 thoughts on “The Myth of Trafficking

  1. Kevin

    In this country (United States) the problem of human trafficking is pretty bad. Part of that is due to the size of the country. Another part is due to sex work being illegal except for in a few counties in Nevada. Women are brought up from Central America with promises of good work in restaurants and such. When they get here however they are told they have a massive debt they have to repay and the only way they can repay is through working in prostitution. Many of the so-called massage parlors have bars on the doors, security cameras everywhere, some even with razor wire fences. All designed to make sure the trafficked women can’t get it. If sex work was legal in this country it might help things.

  2. mae Victoria

    Oh, bullshit with the comment up above. Go get hit by a bus you’re so fucking stupid. Look at what the woman just wrote and then there’s a loser like you with your nonsense.

  3. Daniel

    Mae… First of all, I have not had the opportunity and pleasure of having the companionship of a courtesan, and therefore I am talking from my heart. I truly believe that in order to lower the pimping an human trafficking, the law should be much stricter in it’s sentencing (15-25 yrs w/o parole) and they should be more vigilant in applying these laws. As for the legality of the sex trade, well, as I said,have never been a client; but I strongly believe that all courtesans, escorts, companions, social workers of the evening should be afforded with the best security possible. To that extent I truly believe that their profession should be legalized, that they would have to be health certified every 2 weeks (lab test covered by insurances), for their benefit and the benefit of their clients, and by same token, if the clients care for their companion, they should also be tested, I know I would, because of the pride I would feel towards my “dearest” friend, no joking here. There has to be a shift in social mentalities, at my age I finally accepted what I have always believed which is, sex, sexuality, lovemaking is the most beautiful, creative, healthy pastime anyone can get involved in, and making it safe for everyone should be a priority. Don’t let the purists, puritans desecrate what I would call, one of God’s greatest gifts. ‘Daniel’.

  4. Ina

    Mae your comment is so ignorant. Why do you speak in such profanity? Is it because as a sex worker you are subject to that type of violence and you are speaking with the same filth and degradation of how you are treated. Keep it classy, learn some manners and don’t be so closed minded. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IS A HUGE ISSUE. This article is totally biased and written by someone in the less than 10 per cent that actually choose sex work as a profession. Open your mind and learn about the other side and stop being so angry.

  5. Gretchen

    This is a terrific article. Thank you to author Marijke Vonk and translator Maartje Swart. I’ve waited a long time for some sensible articulate thinkers like these two ladies.

    The rescue industry is a problem here in liberal California as well, with Federal law enforcement agents shutting down our best ways of keeping each other safe. I am referring to the silencing of Redbook.com which was an excellent way to screen clients and avoid bad dates. Our world is so much more dangerous if we can’t talk to each other and keep each other informed about the bad guys.

    The police have now become some of the bad guys in my world. I’m sorry to have to say it, because I would like for law enforcement to be people I could trust to help keep me safe FROM evil men. Ah, but it is not so.

    Watch and see. America has a strong social contract around individual liberties and rights to privacy, and I predict there will be a backlash against this arrogant totalitarian anti-sex rescue industry.

    Sex work is excellent work, it’s a service that is very much needed by the people who patronize it, and it’s a good profession to be in. My only regret, and it’s a big one, is that I didn’t start earlier in life. That’s right, I said it. I wish I hadn’t waited so long.

  6. Daniel

    Gretchen: Marijke’ article is truly phenomenal, and your input was truly wise and enlightening. I am an older Canadian male, who has been misdiagnosed for over 35years; the fact is, my body produces so little testosterone that I had no libido or natural interest in sex. After starting a testosterone regimen 5months back, I discovered I was a MAN ! ( hahaha). Canada is proposing an evangelical hateful bill aimed against courtesans, paid companions an street Social Worker all in the name of wanting to save them which is a pack of BS. God created our sexuality, not to preserve it until we die, but to enjoy it to the fullest. I am married for over 40 years and now that I have a renewed love of life, I feel that the marriage is a form of slavery which will not permit me to enjoy said life. I said that because I physically cannot make love to my wife in any way as she has many physical limitations. Wish I would have met someone like you that cares for life and for people. As for me, my future is undecided, I do not wish to live half a life and I may very end up with a life-ending solution if my sex therapist cannot help me. Gretchen… You are an empowered lady, a true matriarch, ad in hope life brings you all the happiness you are looking for. May you be safe and may God bless you.

  7. Renato Martins

    “Wise and enlightening”, as Daniel said. I’l have it translated to Portuguese by the weekend (if you’ll give me permission to do so), to publish at our newsletter on facebook (Mundo Invisível). Also on facebook, our page in English is Red Umbrella Brasil. Check us out as https://www.facebook.com/home.php.

  8. Daniel

    Really wish you lived where I am. You, of all people,understand the true plight and consequences of a life without human contact, friendships and yes, wanting to have a sexual relationship and please a woman and enjoy her company. I have none of the human contact, friendship et al. as she (wife) puts it, “I own you,body and soul”, “till death do us part”… I love her but her condition makes me cry a lot.

  9. Gretchen

    Daniel don’t give up on life. There is probably a nice sex worker lady near where you live and I bet you can find her.

  10. Daniel

    Gretchen, wish you could be here; I’d give you the biggest loving hug you’ve ever had… Xoxo…
    On the question at hand though, trafficking has been a most heinous crime ever, and the perpetrators should live out their lives in solitary confinement for the rest of their natural life. Laws are not at fault here, there are many laws, and articles of law that deal with “trafficking”, “enslavement” and “exploitation”, enough to fill many volumes. The real problem is the enforcement of those laws, whereby authorities are not accountable for the lack of proper “triage” as to where their efforts should be concentrated. In Canada for example, they are trying to pass Bill C-36, which baring “trafficking”, is a victimless activity performed by two (hopefully healthy) consenting adults. I totally condone courtesans, paid companions et al, and the money spend on their persecution would be better spent at integrating these people into society and afford them with better security and health clinics. I view them as caring therapists living on the avails of their vocation/profession and for most of them a gargantuan amount of experience. The true ails of our society today IS reflected by human trafficking, exploitation, violence, weapons… In other words, activities that are NOT victimless; and this is where the triage and efforts should be concentrated on. In the Canadian situation, and really worldwide, sex should be considered as a glorious gift given to us by the creator (by whatever name), and should be enjoyed as much as possible. I don’t think the creator would appreciate it if I told him I did not indulge as I viewed it as a sin; somehow telling God that he made a mistake in creating sex would be akin to suicide. HEHE!

  11. Steersman

    Great article, fantastic article, though I haven’t had the time yet to chew through all of it.

    However, as I have linked to your article, and a comment in it, in this comment to a National Post article on Canada’s Bill C-36 on prostitution, I have a question or two for you. Specifically, what is “CSOM” as I didn’t see the acronym explained in your article? Do you have any links to the specific study referenced?

    Thank you. And thanks for being such an articulate and passionate defender of sex workers and the profession and those affected by it.

  12. Nonya Biness

    I agree…..oftentimes prostitution and other sex work activity…can be a better more rewarding reality than the low paid abusive jobs out there…even in the good ol USA. Work at Target for $60 per day or two hours as a sex worker for $400???? That’s if it’s safe, etc ,etc.

  13. Gretchen

    The worst abuse and exploitation I ever experienced was when I was living in a family and working a straight job. The notion of Freedom was to me then a cruel joke, as every minute of my day was used up by someone else’s requirements. I had no time or money or friends to call my own, no choices about how anything was done, and no power except the power to endure it.

    As a courtesan I work as little or as much as I please. Everything I earn is mine do save, spend, or give away as I wish. My clients respect me more than my husband ever did. And thanks to my network of sister workers I have more friends, more fun times, and even more safety than I ever could have dreamed of in the straight world. I even get to be creative in my work, dreaming up scenes and acting them out for my audience of one, the client.

    I don’t recommend the work to every woman. You have to keep strict boundaries and check in with yourself constantly, you have to keep training your clients in how to treat you, you can’t slack off on the housekeeping, screening, self-care, and networking. For me to take care of two clients a day is a fulltime job. Much of my work is done before the client arrives and after he leaves. I don’t think most women have the self-discipline it takes to be a good whore. But for those who do have that quality, the work is so rewarding and, dare I say it, educational.

  14. Nonya Biness

    I agree Gretchen; thanks for sharing! I worked as a Pro Domme for 5 years and trusted my clients and received better support and help from those in the community. I was traveling with my now husband and his rich asshole client kept complaining about losing their Filippino maid and how tough it was making her life and she needs to find another one. Can you imagine being FORCED to take care of another person’s family full time due to their being zero work back in your country? That is a form of slavery in my opinion…total isolation!

  15. Betty Velvet

    I’ve been a sex worker fire over 20 years it had afforded me so much more than working in the straight world ever could. I have been able to care for my children, without public assistance of any kind, give them everything they need, most of what they want, and be able to spend time with them, and raise them myself, all because of sex work. I’m proud of who I am, and what I do. I am liberated, and confident, all because of my experiences in this industry. We face more danger because what we do is illegal in so many places. And don’t even get me started on all the people trying to “rescue” us from “this lowly position in life.” Many of us made the choice to become sex workers because of the freedom it gave us. I adore my clients, they are social to me, not because of the money they pay me, but, what we experience together during our encounters.

    I don’t deny that there are women and girls being forced into prostitution, there definitely are, and they need all the help that we can give them. However, it is my firm belief that the percentage of women that are involved in sex work by choice far outweigh the percentage of women that have been forced into it. We deserve to be seen as professionals, that chose this, for any number of reasons. We deserve the same respect, treatment, and protections, as any other person. We deserve to be seen as more than just people who “sell” their body. We, in truth, don’t sell anything. We provide an experience, that a lot of our clients can’t get anywhere else. A basic human need to have contact with another in an intimate way. Sex work isn’t easy, and it certainly isn’t for everyone. But, Rosser of us that chose this life, should feel safe enough to all for help when we need it, because, bag clients do exist, and they prey on women like me, knowing that we have little to no recourse. If we file a report, we stand the risk of losing everything, being charged with a crime, or, being abused all over again by the very people we should be able to turn to for help when we need it. It’s unfortunate that we are seen as less than human, or undeserving of even a little bit of empathy, just because our line of work is presented as unseemly, unlawful, wrong, dirty, of ill repute, or any other description that outsiders decide to label is with. Maybe one day or culture will realize that just because a person is a sex worker, that it doesn’t automatically make them a victim. That many of us pulled ourselves out of situations where we had few choices, little satisfaction, and even less control.

  16. Ray

    The comment about trafficing in the US shows the writers ignorance of the facts.
    As the article states it is totally overhyped.
    If I were to buy my 30 year old girl friend a ticket to another state and she turns a trick there and gets busted they could make the case for trafficing. Total crap.

  17. Alex

    Slightly disagree, human trafficking is a problem, BUT its blown up out of proportion, the media tells stories and amplifies it to make a few cases look like a hundred cases, the media needs people to watch their shows, so documentaries, money, and so on get spent on a smaller problem, solutions are unwise.

    What is the kidnapping rate in the US, its very low, sure the ncec says it high, but many of the cases are resolved quickly, on a,nder,son coo,pers website, he said that only about half of about a hundred cases end up with an adverse outcome. The ncec confirms this when he mention “stereotypical kidnapping”.

    The US does the same for “sex offenders”, actually molestation rates are actually low, many so called “Sex offenders” slept with their teenage counterpart in high school, urinating in the bushes, or did a non-sexual or mostly victimless crime that may not even involved any sexual contact at all. In fact, in the US it’s better to violently assault someone, or even commit manslaughter, than to temporarily detain someone for misbehavior even if there is no contact at all (false imprisonment of a non-child), so if you temporarily detain your niece or nephew for misbehaving, that’s a high risk lifetime adam walsh act, serious offense, shoot the child, sell him drugs, drive drunk, well that’s a lesser penalty. If a 17 year old takes a photo of himself or herself in the nude even consensual or even solo, that’s considered “child pornography”!

    During the bush administration, even consensual pornography was being cracked down on by so called “obscenity statues” even writing a novel was prosecuted! Yet, money is being spent, millions of folks still don’t have access to healthcare.

  18. Sandra E.

    The article did not speak to child trafficking–both for labor and sex trades. Children under the ages of 15 or 10–where ever one wants to define a child- are not making adult or safe choices. Perhaps child trafficking is much lower than the rescue orgs would have us believe, but I have to believe that it is a problem throughout the world. I would love to read a similar article with statistics on how prevalent child trafficking is.

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